It is undeniable that the cosmetic market is experiencing its particular “boom”, the number of launches and products is overwhelming and needless to say cosmetic trends. why and after the post Skincare, where do I start? Today we talk about skin types and their needs.
Skin Types And Needs
When looking for an effective facial routine, it is a priority to know not only our skin type but also its condition and needs.
Broadly speaking, in dermo-cosmetics we classify the skin type according to biotypes, taking into account its homeostasis properties and the glandular secretions (sweat and sebum basically) that form the hydrolipidic layer of the skin. However, genetic and environmental factors that can substantially modify the characteristics of the skin must also be taken into account.
At the beginning of the 20th century, Helena Rubinstein classified the skin types into 4: dry, oily, mixed, and sensitive. However, over the years and scientific advances have allowed us to assess other equally important aspects when it comes to treating our skin, such as pigmentation, elasticity, sensitivity… let’s say this classification was created from a commercial point of view to facilitate customer service and in general terms are still practiced today, although insufficient.
So, Do We Forget About Combination, Oily Skin?
NO . Depending on the secretions that our skin produces, we can classify a skin as normal, mixed, oily or dry, however, it is just as important to take into account other peculiarities such as its state in terms of hydration, sensitivity, pigmentation… factors that may change in based on genetic, hormonal, climatological factors… either temporarily or permanently.
Commercially, we will continue talking about combination skin, oily skin… and when it comes to dealing with the choice of products, this classification will continue to be useful to us – at least that is my perception – however, to optimize our routines we need something more.
But let’s go in order and exemplify with a brief guide the skin types and their needs:
Normal or Eudermic Skin – It is a skin balanced in hydration and sebum production characterized by a regular texture, fine pores, good general tone, and absence of imperfections. Skin without major problems, but it does not stop needing a basic care routine: cleaning and hydration.
Do you know many normal skins? I do not the truth … normally this type of skin corresponds to very young skin or babies.
Oily Skin– It is characterized because its glands produce excess fat and it presents enlarged pores, shine, and a tendency to blemishes (acne, comedones, black spots …). It is usually thick and dull skin.
Fundamental in this type of skin, be constant with cleaning and opt for products that help control excess sebum without slipping the skin barrier. Do not abuse oil-free or mattifying routines.
And yes, oily skin also needs hydration, the important thing is to find the ideal texture and opt for non-occlusive or comedogenic ingredients.
Dry or Alipic Skin– It is a thin, slightly elastic skin with little sebum production, therefore it usually presents a matte appearance and a feeling of tightness and even irritation. They are usually sensitive skin.
This skin type requires a mild, soap-free, non-drying balm or milk cleanser and a nourishing, nourishing moisturizer that compensates for lipid deficiency and calms tightness.
The skin generally becomes drier with age due to decreased lipid production and loss of water.
Mixed Skin– In this type of skin, the two mentioned above converge. It is a skin with very different needs according to the area, usually the most oily T-zone with more enlarged pores and the cheeks and other areas of the face that are normal or with a dry tendency.
This classification is the most common, the vast majority respond to mixed skin and the explanation is simple. Our face has more sebaceous glands in the T zone, consequently, our pores may be more marked, we may have black spots … etc.
Once our skin type is clear, it is just as important to know its state and characteristics, aspects that can vary considerably throughout our lives and can be determined by many factors: genetic, hormonal, climatological … we must take into account their degree of sensitivity, hydration, pigmentation, presence of wrinkles, redness … the most common being sensitive skin or dehydrated skin that can affect any type of skin either dry or oily for example.
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Factors To Identify Our Skin Type
Hydration: The outer layer of our skin is responsible for retaining hydration and producing sebum, depending on its state we can speak of a Dry skin: a skin that feels tight, dull and sometimes with small scaly areas or either a skin that, on the contrary, tends to shine easily and excessively, an oily/oily skin (O).
Sensitivity: We are talking about sensitive skin (S) or resistant skin (R). A sensitive skin (S) can be identified if it presents redness, acne, rosacea … it is therefore a skin that presents a less resistant barrier and a greater inflammatory response, it is a more vulnerable skin. However, we will talk about resistant skin (R) when the outer layer of the skin is in better condition, it will undergo less alterations and it will rarely react to any product (except for allergies or very specific cases).
Pigmentation: this is very simple, we will talk about pigmented skin (P) when they have a tendency to produce spots, either post-inflammatory or due to sunspots, freckles, etc. On the contrary, we will talk about non-pigmented skins (N).
Wrinkles: Finally, we will talk about skins that are more predisposed to having wrinkles (even prematurely, regardless of their age): wrinkled/wrinkled (W) and those that do not have wrinkles or are less likely to have them: stretched / tight (T).
The state of our skin can be definitive when evaluating what routine we need but what do we treat first? The usual thing is to find a skin with more than one concern, see mine: mixed/dry, sensitive and fine skin with a tendency to dehydration, with so many open fronts, what problem/need do I prioritize in my routines?
Sensitivity: Undoubtedly, the first thing that should concern us regardless of our skin type, especially reactive, atopic skin, with rosacea, couperose … are more fragile skin and therefore require special care. If your skin is sensitive, prioritize this aspect above all and go to a dermatologist.
Dehydration: Possibly a high% of those who are reading me have dehydrated skin as a result of inadequate routines or external factors such as the weather. Dehydrated skin is dull, grayish skin that even suffers from acne or shine in response to that lack of hydration, in a defense mechanism that our skin tries to balance by generating more sebum. A well-hydrated skin is a skin in better conditions to face external agents, therefore it is an important factor to take into account.
Acne: A problem far from limited to puberty, more and more adult acne is one of the main headaches for women and can be due to multiple factors: hormonal, stress. food … It is important to know the origin of that acne to find an appropriate treatment.
Hyperpigmentation: It is due to an excess in the production of melanin that generates dark spots. And in this matter, I particularly tell you that cosmetics go as far as it goes, there are assets that are very efficient in treating stains, but in most cases, the solution is to go to the dermatologist and assess medical options such as IPL, Radiofrequency, professional peels … etc.
In conclusion, don’t just stick with the label “combination or oily skin” or your age, go further if you want to optimize your routines and get real results. Aspects such as the climate in which we live, the medications we take, or our rhythm of life greatly influence the state of our skin, that’s why I always insist that no one likes you to really assess what you need.
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