Hyperthyroidism Simplified & Explained

Hyperthyroidism It is a condition in which the thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone and can lead to weight gain, fatigue, heat intolerance, and an increased heart rate. It is frequently diagnosed during pregnancy due to changes in hormone levels before delivery or by symptoms of nervousness or anxiety during early pregnancy.

causes

1. Graves Disease

Graves disease is the most common cause. In this disease, antibodies have released that attack and inhibit thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), causing overstimulation of thyroid hormones in the body.

2. Toxic Goiter

Toxic goiter is caused by iodine deficiency which is often caused by not consuming enough iodized salt.

3. Thyroid Cysts

Thyroid cysts are small lumps of tissue that are found in the thyroid gland. They are benign and can lead to the appearance of a goiter.

4. Surgical Removal

Removed thyroid glands are prone to become hyperactive, causing side effects.

5. Drug Reactions

Drug reactions can cause it by interfering with the body’s ability to produce TSH, an important hormone that regulates thyroid hormone production.

Treatment

1. Antithyroid Drugs

You can use this to be used to reduce thyroid hormone production.

2. Radioactive Iodine

Radioactive iodine is used as part of the treatment in pregnant women from the early stages of pregnancy. It is taken orally and quickly reduces thyroid hormone levels, relieving symptoms.

3. Surgery

Surgery to remove the glands and decrease thyroid hormone levels is another type of treatment. In some cases, surgery may be considered to treat a goiter caused by Graves disease. It is a serious disorder and should be treated soon after it occurs.

4. Surgery to Change the Size of the Thyroid

In some cases, surgery may be necessary to reduce the size of a thyroid gland that has become enlarged. However, It can also lead to other problems, such as weight gain and heart palpitations due to damage to the heart.

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Who is at risk?

1. Women

Women normally begin to experience its symptoms around the age of 50. Most cases, however, are diagnosed in people over the age of 60.

2. Men

This disease is far more common in women than men. This could be attributable to a higher prevalence in women overall or because of a specific hormone associated with it. Men are more likely than women to have a goiter.

3. Some Racial and Ethnic Groups

Its risk increases with age in some racial and ethnic groups. People of African descent have the highest risk at all ages, followed by Caucasians, Hispanics, and people of Asian descent.

4. Pregnancy

Preeclampsia is a condition in which blood vessels in the body become enlarged. A pregnant woman with preeclampsia will have high blood pressure, fluid retention, and swelling of the hands and feet. The enlarged blood vessels can cause problems such as fetal growth restriction or preeclampsia.

5. Increasing Age

Its risk increases with age in both men and women. According to the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, there is a twofold increase in its incidence in men between ages 40 and 70, compared to those aged 30 to 40. Its risk increases with age in women.

6. History of Cysts

Women with a history of thyroid cysts have a higher risk of developing this disease.

Symptoms

1. Fatigue

This is one of the most common symptoms. People with this disease often experience an increased feeling of fatigue. They may feel weak, heavy, and less energetic than normal.

2. Weight Loss

Weight loss is also a common symptom . This is because thyroid hormones regulate metabolism, which affects weight and energy. Therefore, when these hormones are imbalanced, weight loss occurs.

3. Nausea

This is believed to be caused by a lack of taste in the mouth and throat.

4. Constipation

This is a result of the stomach not emptying as it normally would. The muscles that help propel food through the digestive tract are underactive, which causes constipation.

5. Anxiety

Anxiety is a common symptom. People with this disease may feel strained and nervous all the time. They may feel as if they have no control over their lives.

6. Alpitations

Palpitations are sudden strong urges to take a breath. These are normally experienced as the heart beats faster but can also occur when the heart rate is normal.

7. High Blood Pressure

High blood pressure is commonly experienced. It is thought to be caused by the release of extra thyroid hormones, leading to an increased heart rate and blood pressure. Also, medications used to treat it can cause high blood pressure. Other factors that may contribute to high blood pressure include the increased heart rate, weight loss, increased appetite, and sodium intake.

Also Read: Impact Of Restrictive Diets On Health

Other Implication That May Arise In Its Treatment

The following side effects may also arise due to its treatment.

1. Hair Loss

2. Cold Feet and Hands

3. Tendonitis

It may lead to pain in the tendons.

4. Pregnancy Complications

May cause premature birth, smaller babies, and breech births. These may be due to a thyroid hormone imbalance in the pregnancy. It is thought to cause heart defects and movement disorders in babies. It is also linked to preeclampsia.

5. Mental Health Issues

Research shows that women with this disease are more prone to depression and anxiety than those without it.

6. Bleeding Disorders

It may lead to a condition called hemophilia. Hemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder.

7. Weight Loss

It can result in weight loss due to excess energy expenditure and increased appetite.

Diagnonization

A blood test is the most common method of diagnosing this disease. Other tests that may be performed include an imaging study, thyroid ultrasound, needle biopsy, and radioactive iodine uptake.

Treatment

Its treatment is based on the cause. It can be treated with radioactive iodine (RAI), surgery, or medication. RAI destroys the thyroid gland and stops the production of excess amounts of hormones. Surgery to remove the thyroid gland is often effective in treating it.In some cases, the medication propylthiouracil may be given instead of surgery.

Getting too much iodine can cause this disease. This is because iodine is essential for the production of thyroid hormones.

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